Shelters are nuclear and conventional weapons, biological and chemical warfare agents, and natural disasters, as well as protection places built to protect the essential living and lifeless assets for the survival of the country's war power.
• Explosion resistance,
• Gas proof,
• Water impermeability,
• Provide resistance and shock insulation against electromagnetic radiation.
• Since the outer atmosphere is uninhabitable, it should provide an artificial atmosphere in the shelter and enable people to continue their lives with minimum support.
SHELTER NEEDS AND THREATS
Potential danger is a threat to regional disputes that may arise almost anywhere, rather than from a global crisis.
In such a war, it is the use of chemical and biological weapons as well as conventional weapons that increase their effectiveness day by day.
It should be considered that these weapons could be used by terrorist groups or could explode as a result of an accident, in which case the proliferation of long-term chemical agents and nuclear Fallout would be the most effective means of protecting them would be well-designed refuges.
Conventional weapons, such as bullets, cannons, rockets, mines and missiles, have the effects of entering into fortified buildings and refuges, creating extreme pressure and destruction.
The effects of nuclear weapons include long-term positive and negative pressure, ground shock loads, thermal radiation, nuclear radiation, and electromagnetic waves.
With the effect of the explosion, the pressure reaches the highest value from the normal atmospheric pressure and drops to the normal level in much shorter time than the second. After that, the pressure drops below normal pressure. This situation creates a shock effect on the structure.
Thermal radiation occurs with the explosion and lasts very short. But this can lead to fires, and as a result, oxygen in the air is reduced.
Nuclear radiation is divided into three classes;
The first nuclear radiation is emitted for a minute or two after the explosion.
Permanent radiation then spreads. After the radioactive material ascends to the sky, it comes down to the ground as a local Fallout, and then it descends as a delayed global Fallout.
Electromagnetic waves are electromagnetic radiation consisting of sharp vibrating radio waves that occur in nuclear explosions.
Electromagnetic radiation does not harm living organisms. Intensive electrical and magnetic fields damage electrical devices.
Chemical and biological weapons: a large group of irritating, poisonous and pathogenic agents sent to the target in different ways.
Potential war agents, which can be used by terrorist groups or some countries, include chemical agents such as mustard gas, nerve gas, sarin, soman or VX, and bacteria such as botulism, toxin, anthrax, and variola.
Currently available and developed diseases in the laboratory can be used as a combat Agent.
The most effective way to protect human life and strategic facilities against these threats is to build robust shelters.
Although it is not possible to build an indestructible refuge, the great effort and possible losses that will have to be spent to destroy a well-protected target could force the attacker to abandon the attack.
In this case, the refuge should have a system that will protect people from harmful effects and the necessary systems of life support for it.